Quadrant: The Journal of the C.G. Jung Foundation
From the Editor — Kathryn Madden
Before I introduce the thematic content of this issue, I must, first and foremost, express the profound loss that so many of us are experiencing over the passing of two great figures in the history of Jungian analysis and Jungian studies: Mario Jacoby and James Hillman. Beyond their substantial contributions to the field of depth psychology, they leave a plethora of memories for those who have encountered them personally. John Beebe and Murray Stein have graciously offered In Memoriams. We will run longer articles of tribute in future issues.
We are pleased to present this issue of Quadrant with articles that explore the relationship of Jungian psychology to Eastern Orthodox Christianity and to Zen Buddhism, as well as to a fuller understanding of art and contemporary secular mythology. If the image is the language of the dream and mythology is the dream of the collective psyche, then we would expect to find image and symbol complementing the mythological stories that undergird a culture, a nation or a civilization.
In Memoriam: James Hillman — John Beebe
Keywords:America, archetypal psychology, citizenship, criticism, deconstruction, Hillman, Jung, world soul
James Hillman is remembered as the author of papers and books, including Senex and Puer: An Aspect of the Historical Present, The Feeling Function, and A Terrible Love of War, that both explicate and deconstruct the premises of depth psychology in general and Jungian analytical psychology in particular. Although Hillman helped to found the school of Archetypal Psychology, the author of this memorial, who knew him personally, does not find him to be doctrinaire; rather he challenged even his followers, in raising his individual voice to assert the duty of psychological citizenship to pursue fresh understandings. The author argues that although Hillman's eventual subject was the soul of the world, the way he addressed it was quintessentially American.
In Memoriam: Mario Jacoby— Murray Stein
Although he never held a major elected office at ISAP, Mario Jacoby was a constant and gently guiding presence and a persistent influence among us. He was an Elder in the best and most personal, familiar sense of the word. Following a long tenure on the Curatorium of the Jung Institute, Mario became an integral figure in the founding generation of ISAP. His wide international recognition as a notable figure in the world of Analytical Psychology contributed significant gravitas to this fledgling institution.
Mario was utterly unique and so completely irreplaceable, and we will miss his presence infinitely, even though he lives on in many of us, in memory and in formations of personality and style.
Now Mario has become an ancestral spirit. He joins the pantheon of ancestors of Jungian psychology alongside the other major figures who have gone before, a galaxy of personalities who have profoundly shaped our minds and our lives and have left their profound imprint.
you all know very well, in Jungian circles Mario was much more than a local figure. Students from all parts of the world studied with him in Zürich and carried his insights, attitudes, and books to their countries. And he was famous for his generosity. For instance, in the mid 1990s I called him and told him about a student sponsored by the IAAP hailing from China. Prof. Heyong Shen could spend six months at the Institute, I told him, and needed an analyst. Would he see Heyong at a reduced fee while he studied here? Without hesitation, Mario agreed and the results of his donation to Jungian work in China are bearing fruit today. In response to the announcement of Mario's death, Heyong wrote me the following: "It's the early morning of October 3 in China when I read this sad news. I told my students the story of my first session with Mario the day before yes- terday. I explained the Chinese name for him: three characters—the first one meaning "Asia" and "as the same;" the second meaning "aged" and "reliable;" and the third one meaning "wholeness" and "all together" with a form of special stars. The pronunciation of these three Chinese characters is just like "Jacoby." I will reprint his book, Analytical Encounter, which I translated with a student as a memorial for his teaching and friendship."
Mario was a lifelong active member of the IAAP. From the President of the IAAP, Dr. Joseph Cambray, I have the following message: "Mario was an ardent supporter of the IAAP and worked actively with a number of Developing Groups from East European countries and was always available as an examiner for the intermediate and final exams to routers from around the globe. With the exception of the Congress in Montreal where, due to his health he was unable to attend, Mario had the distinction of being the only person to have attended all IAAP Congresses from the beginning. It is with great sadness that we take our leave of Mario. We shall all miss his warm, gentle, and loving presence and will always cherish the memory of Mario's bohemian spirit, his love of music, especially of opera, his joyful dancing, and his hearty laugh. Mario's spirit will live on in the hearts and souls of the many people who had the privilege of knowing him."
Mario's colleagues at ISAP will miss him most of all. He was a stalwart lec- turer and seminar leader until very recently, and he continued to see students for training analysis and supervision so long as his health permitted. His supportive presence in our General Assemblies was a great help to me personally during these past four years. His absence leaves a great emptiness in our midst, though he will of course always live on in our memory as a comforting image of one who preferred understanding to power, empathy over aggressive intervention and friendship over rivalry for honors.
Long may his gentle and lyrical spirit continue to dwell among us.
Quadrant's author is awarded NAAP's Gradiva award — Kathryn Madden
The C. G. Jung Foundation of New York is proud to announce that author Laurence de Rosen, who authored "Memory of a Trainee: The Birth in the Fall," in Quadrant, Vol. 40: 1, Winter 2010 was selected to receive the Gradiva Award for Best Article, presented at a ceremony during the fall at NAAP's 2011 Annual Conference in New York City. Each Gradiva Award winner receives a handsome brass plaque etched with the image of Gradiva, which is based on a Pompeian relief similar to one that hung in Freud's office.
Jung, Florensky, and Dreams: Three Levels of Interpretation — Byron J. Gaist
Keywords: dreams, Jung, Florensky, Orthodox Christianity, images, spirituality, symbols, archetypes, levels of interpretation
Despite plentiful well-known instances of dreaming and dream interpretation in Holy Scripture and especially in the lives of the saints, Orthodox Christianity maintains a cautious attitude towards dreams and the use of the imagination in general. One notable exception to this can be found in the thought of the "Russian Leonardo," Fr. Pavel Florensky. In what follows, I will very briefly sketch Florensky's evocative and brilliantly suggestive Orthodox thinking on dreams, of which a fuller description can be found in Iconostasis (e.g. Florensky, 2000), and contrast this way of thinking with the traditional Jungian approach. I will go on to outline my own way of working with patients' dreams, using case examples from one patient. It is my personal conviction that dream interpretation does not have to be exclusively psychological or exclusively spiritual, and that it can be constructively approached on a number of possible levels: here I shall discuss three, namely the psychodynamic, the transpersonal/symbolic, and the spiritual.
Parallels in C. G. Jung and Eastern Christianity —Tyler Dudley
Keywords: archetype, individuation, deification, shadow, passions, Black Sun, transfiguration
This article stems from the writer's 40-year experience with Jungian psychology and his conversion to the Russian Orthodox Church in 1995. For more than 10 years after 1995, the author noted several parallels between the process in Jungian psychology and that of the spiritual development in Eastern Christianity. Here, in the introductory sections he presents the background to these ideas. Then he discusses four of the parallels and offers a personal experience to illustrate the primary points.
Kensho: The Mirror of Self-Reflection — Fanny Brewster
Keywords: Zazen, analytical psychology, poetry, mirror, dreams
Analytical psychology and Zen Buddhism share a focus in connect- ing with the unconscious. Through zazen, dreamwork and creative practices, each in its own way, attempts to decrease the influence of egoic processes on the personal life, creating more of a balance with the unconscious/Self. The relationship between analytical psychology and Zen Buddhism is explored, asking "How can these two experiences deepen one's psychological life, considering the possibilities of bridge-building between the ego and the unconscious?" The symbol of mirror is used as a means to discover the reflective relationship between analytical psychology and Zen Buddhism.
Poetry: Canaan and Elegy for John Muir
Ever since Aldo Carotenuto published Sabina Spielrein's papers in the 1980s, she has come to occupy an increasingly prominent place in the story of Jung's life. John Kerr's A Most Dangerous Method (1993) documented her role, and now David Cronenberg brings her story to the silver screen in A Dangerous Method. The costumes and sets are superb and reminiscent of a Merchant-Ivory production. We get to compare iconic events in Jung's life with those that we have already pictured in our own imagination, among these are his catalyptic exteriorization experience in Freud's office ("How loud was the explosion?") and Freud's fainting spell in Munich. Discrepancies do crop up throughout the film: Jung visited Freud for the first time in 1907 not 1906. Their ship-board discussion of Jung's dream of the Austrian customs official is pure fiction since Jung had the dream after their trip to the U.S. in 1909. The picture of red sail boats a la Seurat that hangs in Jung's office at the Burgholzli is out of place. Although it nicely prefigures his boat scene embrace of Sabina, Jung's artistic taste ran to symbolism rather than neo-impressionism. Anachronisms include those about coincidence (Jung) and shamans (Freud) while Sabina comes up with the anima/animus concept when talking to Jung on a park bench! For me in the end it not so much a question of how much he got wrong (the front of the house in Kusnacht facing the lake) as about how much he got right in 99 minutes and on a finite budget. The film is a visually rich and emotionally gripping experience in spite of the liberties it takes with the historical record.........
David Cronenberg's A Dangerous Method, based on John Kerr's book A Most Dangerous Method (1993), presents historical settings, figures and dialogues that give the impression we are watching a docudrama. The film is indeed advertised as "the true story of an encounter." Its numerous historical accuracie—ssuch as images of the hospital in Burgholzli, of Vienna and the painstaking reproduction of Freud's study, of Kusnacht, and Lake Zurich—all give us a sense that the film is recreating history based on documentation and research. At the New York screening for the Jungian community the film's director spoke about his painstaking research into details to maintain historical accuracy, even investigating what kind of cigars Freud smoked and how often he would light up.........
Book Reviews — Beth Darlington, Book Review Editor
The Struggles of a Jewish Disciple. A Review of The Jung-Kirsch Letters: The Correspondence of C.G. Jung and James Kirsch.
Masculine Shame: from Succubus to the Eternal Feminine
Online supplement. Myth and Mythmaking in America: Cultural Implications — Richard Marranca
Keywords: American myth, archetypes, C. G. Jung, city upon a hill, the American dream, Hollywood, the cowboy
Myth infuses us with its sacred and social dimensions, its ability to inspire and organize society. Many people think that modern societies don’t have myth at all, yet all societies give birth to and live out their myths, and even the most fanciful myths can bear a semblance of reality. Because of our vast landscape and frontier mentality, W. H. Auden believed that America is the most mythical of modern nations. A partial list of American myth includes manifest destiny, founding fathers, the West, many cultural heroes, American literature, urban myths, and those listed under key words. What we do with these myths, and the depth of our understanding, was deeply important to C. G. Jung.
Online supplement. Desire, Spirit, and Inner Conversation — Kathryn Madden
Keywords: desire, spirit, inner conversation, sensus communes, soul
One of our goals in the process of analytical psychology is to become aware of the inner movement of desire and spirit in our psyches. Jungian psychology offers a map of psychological growth in the con- text of relational conflict, creative inspiration, various layers of personal healing, and deepened spirituality. Following the thread of desire in our images and dreams helps us to distinguish the difference between fantasy and imagination and develops self-reflection in respect to our personal obstacles and defenses. Above all, we experience active individuation through creative expression. Quadrant’s 2011 Distinguished Artist, Brent Weston, is once again featured illustrating his own artistic awareness of what desire in relationship to spirit asks of us.
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